There are many different types of microphones available today, and whilst each has usually been designed for a specific application, microphones are generally interchangeable between different instruments, using them live, in broadcast or recording studios. The most common type of microphones used in studio recordings are condensers - although passive dynamic and ribbon microphones are equally valid and relied upon choices. Condenser microphones are able to capture a very crisp and detailed sound quality, making them an ideal choice for recording.
Condenser microphones include large diaphragm - such as the AKG C414 series, small diaphragm or pencil microphones like the Neumann KM184 and tube condensers such as the Mojave MA-300. Classic ribbon microphones include the Coles 4038 and Royer R122.
Probably the most commonly used and owned studio microphone would be the Shure SM57. The SM57 is a basic dynamic microphone. It’s great for all types of drums, guitar/instrument amps and even ambient/experimental room miking. Another variant for vocals would be the Shure SM7B (great on amps too). The Electro-Voice RE20 (Thom York’s vocal mic), Sennheiser MD421, Beyer M88 and AKG D112 are useful, commonly used and excellent dynamic studio microphones.
Be sure to check out the Sounds Easy Signal Processing collection, as whilst the above dynamic microphones are outstanding studio microphones, being passive mean they are more reliant on outstanding pre-amps and other dynamics processors to bring them to life!